Unit 1

This unit consists of 3 areas of study:

1. Materials and components.
2. Design and market influences.
3. Processes and manufacture.

Materials and components

The functional properties of food

Students will be investigating the functional properties of: starch (to thicken, gel), sugar (to flavour, colour, aerate and caramelize), protein (to aerate and coagulate) and fat (to shorten, emulsify)

There are examples below.

Gelatinisation: sauce making,
Elasticity: bread making,
Shortening: pastry making,
Aeration: raising agents, cake making,
Emulsification: salad dressings,
Coagulation: setting of egg mixtures,
Flavouring: sweetening agents in desserts/flavouring and herbs and spices in savoury products e.g. pasta,
Colouring: fats used in pastry making,
Setting: gelatine in mousses,
Fermentation: bread production;

Students must understand the terms: binding, bulking, coating enrobing, enriching, finishing techniques, glazing, palatability, plasticity, sealing, shaping,

The nutritional properties of food

Students will examine the nutritional properties of ingredients/ food products. An understanding of the nutritional characteristics of the main nutrients: proteins, fats, carbohydrates – sugars and starches, vitamins and minerals – Vitamins A, B, C and D, Calcium, Iron;

They will study different target groups: including vegetarians, diabetics, coeliacs, and calorie controlled those with nut allergies and lactose intolerance.

Government guidelines such as the eatwell plate, five a day will be studied.

The effects of combining different ingredients and the interaction of foods during preparation and cooking.

Students will be taught to select and combine foods/ingredients to achieve • different textures, finishes, shapes, size and appearance

Students must know how the following are formed: solutions, suspensions, emulsions, and gels. This will take place through practical activities practical activities, e.g. salad dressings, sauces and cold desserts;


The importance of appropriate proportions on the structure, shape and volume of mixtures.

Students will

  • study how accurate measurement, ratio and proportioning affect preparation, making and shaping of products achieving acceptable outcomes;
  •  investigate the adaptation of amounts in mixtures: • cakes, pastry, sauces, bread, biscuits;
  • through experiment, investigation and product development, understand the importance of using appropriate amounts and types of ingredients and processing techniques to meet designated criteria and tolerances.

The effects of acids and alkalis

Students will

  • study how acids and alkali affect the final outcome of a dish, e.g. colour, texture and storage.
  • understand the effect of acid on foods e.g. Acids – the effect of vinegar on the texture of meringue; retention of colour in fruit salad, e.g. lemon juice, souring of milk, e.g. yogurt.
  • understand the effect of alkali on foods e.g. Alkali – the effect of corn flour on the texture of meringue; bicarbonate of soda in gingerbread.

The use of standard components in food processing

Students will

  • understand the advantages and disadvantages of • standard components in food production.
  • explore the use of standard components: frozen/• chilled pastry, decorations (ready- made icing, marzipan etc), pizza bases, ready-made fillings/sauces/cake mixes/bread mixes.

Design and market influences

Students will

  • investigate design opportunities.
  • identify and use stages in the development of a food product prototype
  • identify ways in which a product could be developed.
  • understand labelling, packaging, product information and codes of practice
  • consider social, economic, cultural and environmental issues.

Processes and manufacture

Students will

  • consider the use, need and effect of additives
  • assess the impact and effect of using a range of different equipment to produce food items of quality and consistency
  • study the storage of Food and Food Products
  • understand the manufacturing/Large Scale Production Requirements
  • be aware of new technological Developments.

Unit 1 will be taught in the first two terms of the course in year 10 under the following topics. Due to the nature of the course, topics will be integrated throughout and topics will be revisited.

Autumn 1

Approx 7 weeks. “FEEDING THE FAMILY”

An introduction to the different nutrients and the basis of meal planning.

Areas of study.

Nutritional data – Protein

Carbohydrate. Sugar/NSP/Starch.


Vitamins ABC &D

Minerals. Iron Calcium

Nutritional disorders.

Ratio/proportion in basic recipes (focussed practical task- adapting shortcrust pastry – wholemeal, vegetarian, ratio of fats) recipe engineering.

Product appraisal – Comparison of homemade Swiss roll versus bought.

Practical using whisked sponge. Layered product.

Sensory analysis. Star profile, ranking tests etc.

Function of ingredients. Linked to food groups.

Introduction of Eatwell plate.

Target groups. Factors which affect their diet e.g. vegetarian, age group, religion, air mile and environmental issues.

Sauces. Starch as a thickener. Lemon meringue pie.

Autumn 2

Approx 7 weeks. “CHILL OUT”

Design and make a main course food product for the cook chill or freezer cabinet.

Areas of study.

Preservation. Reasons and methods.

Types of preservations. Lemon curd.

Micro-organisms requirement for growth.

Portion size, cost, appearance and flavour.

Labelling-storage and cooking instructions. Ingredients. Date marking. ETC.

Control points and critical control points. HACCP.

Contamination (cross and prevention)

High risk foods and temperature control.

Packaging materials. Types function, etc. Social, economic, cultural and environmental considerations. MAP.

Meat and fish. Structure, nutritive value and cooking.



Spring 1


Areas of study

Aeration of baked products (raising agents and yeast)

Practical using various types of raising agents.

Experiments using different raising agents. (Probably with scones)

Bread production (focussed practical task)

Consistency of outcome size, texture and flavour. Quality control

Food industry production line. CAD CAM

Single commodity-multi product range.

Foods from different countries. Product appraisal. Food miles.

Scaling up for production – small to large scale. (Use a case study?)

Designing a quality product. Valentine biscuits.

Spring 2 

Approx.6 weeks “HAVING YOUR CAKE” Easter cake completion.

.Areas of study

Mass, batch and one-off production.

Scaling up for production – small to large scale. (Use a case study?)

Designing a quality product.

Cake making methods.

Quality control.

Test kitchen

Specification and tolerance levels.

Annotated diagram.

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